Articles | Volume 4
06 Jun 2023
 | 06 Jun 2023

Indoor localisation and location tracking in indoor facilities based on LiDAR point clouds and images of the ceilings

Ioannis Dardavesis, Edward Verbree, and Azarakhsh Rafiee

Keywords: indoor localisation, location tracking, LiDAR, iPad 12 pro, point cloud registration, feature matching

Abstract. Localisation and navigation technologies have vastly evolved during the last years, facilitating users’ guidance in various environments. Unlike outdoor environments where GNSS comprises a universal solution, in indoor environments various localisation techniques have been used, each one with its drawbacks. Thus, this research investigates the reliability of the ceilings towards indoor localisation, by using components that are included in a simple mobile device. The choice of ceilings lies in their advantages, which include the incorporation of various characteristic components, as well as the absence of obstacles between them and the sensor. Indoor localisation is achieved based on LiDAR point clouds and images from RGB sensors of mobile devices. Additionally, this research involves location tracking of different users, to discover different movement patterns in an indoor facility. The proposed methodology revealed the robustness of the Coloured ICP algorithm for in-door localisation based on point clouds, both in terms of time efficiency and quality, while the combination of the SURF feature detector and SIFT descriptor provides the optimal indoor localisation results with image data. The proposed pipeline revealed encouraging results for use in emergencies, based on static data acquisition of a user, while it is also suitable for dynamic applications, in case a sensor is mounted on an automated device for indoor mapping operations. The captured point clouds of the ceilings can also be used as a reference to CAD and BIM models, to help the modelling of the existing utilities and their components in an indoor facility.